Amid a climate of growing tensions and conflict between Indians and non-Indians, the U.S. Congress authorized a commission to negotiate a series of treaties in the state that would guarantee specific lands to native tribes, and provide economic aid. On August 1, 1851, headmen for nine tribal communities of the region signed the treaty at Bidwell's ranch, including Luck-y-an of the Mechoopda. Known as the U.S. Treaty of 1851, its promised provisions included, "200 head of beef-cattle, to average in weight five hundred pounds, seventy-five sacks of flour one hundred pounds each" within two years of the signing. Additional goods such as calico cloth, needles, thread, scissors, blankets, one thousand pounds of iron, one hundred pounds of steel, mules, ploughs, one hundred milk cows, yokes, etc., were also guaranteed. Most importantly, however, was the 227 square mile tract of land outlined in the treaty as the permanent home for the tribes who agreed to the treaty.

In all 18 treaties were negotiated throughout the state during 1851-1852, reserving more than eight million acres of land. However, succumbing to opposition mounted by the California State Senate and the Governor, who objected to the reservation of lands for Indians that might be of either agricultural or gold bearing value, the U.S. Senate secretly rejected the treaties on July 8, 1852. Not until 1905, over fifty years later, would the injunction of secrecy be removed, and the treaties brought to the light of day. And not until 1928, were the Indians of California permitted to sue the federal government for compensation.